Municipalities looking for a waste reduction solution have a wide range of options to choose from, and those options can vary greatly in their expense and effectiveness.

One strategy that many local governments have seen work well at encouraging people to throw away less and recycle more is implementing unit-based pricing for solid waste. When we examine the data, it becomes clear that unit-based pricing is the most effective approach to waste reduction with positive financial and environmental outcomes.

The table below provides a summary of results from various studies and articles on the observed waste reduction impacts of various approaches (which can sometimes be used in combination). This data can help cities and towns considering waste reduction options to balance the benefits and limitations of the various options and determine what model works best for them.